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OSI Model

What is an OSI model?
 
      OSI stands for Open System Interconnect. It was developed by the International Organization for Standardization in 1974. The OSI model consists of seven layers with each layer having a different function of processing.
The seven layers of OSI Reference model are as follows:




OSI Model
OSI Model



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The Open System Interconnection model defines implementations for networking framework protocols in seven layers. Starting from the application layer in one station, the control is circulated from one layer to the other over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.

Application layer

The application layer is the seventh or topmost layer of the OSI Model. The Application Layer is responsible for providing end-user services, such as file transfers, electronic messaging, e-mail, virtual terminal access, and network management. This is the layer with which the user interacts with the application. This interface may be command-line-based or GUI-based. Cisco routers and switches have a command-line interface, while a web browser uses a graphical interface.The application layer refers to applications that are network-aware. There are thousands of computer applications, but not all of these can transmit information across a network Examples of application layer programs are telnet, FTP, web browsers, and e-mail.



Presentation layer
The Presentation Layer establishes context between Application Layer entities, in which the higher-layer entities may use different syntax and semantics if the presentation service provides a mapping between them. If a mapping is available, presentation service data units are encapsulated into session protocol data units, and passed down the stack.


Session layer
 The session layer is the fifth layer of the OSI model that controls the connections between computers. Its responsibility is to establish, manage and terminate the connections between the client and remote applications. Session layer provides full duples, half duplex and simplex operaions of communication.

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